Coffee of the species Wild Arabica will be extinct in 100 years. This is according to a study that was done by the RBG, Kew (UK), working hand in hand with Ethiopian scientists and it attributes this to climate change. The report was published on 7 November 2012 in PLOS ONE. Being genetically diverse, it is seen as being highly instrumental in sustaining the coffee industry. The change in climate shall in addition influence negatively the amounts of coffee produced in Ethiopia, which is Africa’s largest producer. This report is supported by the confirmed fact that Arabica is sensitive to climate. Being the most preferred drink in the world, this report is definitely worrying.
Based on computer modeling on the climate change influence on coffee species growing naturally, the study is one of its own having never been done before. In order to ascertain the absolute and contemplated geographic spread of Arabica species, the scientists carried out field work and also used recorded statistics to carry out bioclimatic prototypes. It was then compiled over time until 2080. This depended on the HCC Model, version 3. This is the most prevailing standard used, and the one that exclusively dealt with the intended time periods, for a number of transmissions, at the intended rotation of 1 km. They used three distinct transmission schemes based on time intervals of 2020, 2050 and 2080. All of them displayed extreme negative effect on the quantity of wild Arabica growth. The analyses used were based on first on locality and secondly on area. In the former, the most affirmative result is a c. 65% decrease in the quantity of appropriate localities, and on the negative, 99.7% decrease, by the year 2080. In the latter, the most affirmative result is 38% decrease, and the worst 90% fall, in 2080. Bio climatic appropriateness is the merging of variables related to climate which are integral to the well being and life of a species. When these factors are not optimal, population species are more likely to become extinct.
The authors consider the locality analysis to be the most logical. The predicted decrease is considered as a broad evaluation of the species’ continuity. Nevertheless, the predictions are seen as ‘moderate’ because extreme cutting down of trees in Ethiopia’s and South Sudan’s highland forests was not factored in. Also, the models assumed the natural vegetation was pristine while it is actually portioned. More factors not considered include diseases, and variation in flourishing periods. In April 2012, the researchers visited South Sudan’s Boma Plateau to carry out field observations. Comparing the results to a 1941 study on Arabica in Boma Plateau showed that not all environmental factors seen can be deduced to felling trees or farming during the 70 year time interval. Here, it had been anticipated that Arabica would by 2020 be gone. The bad health of what remains supports this assertion. The general summary is that climate change adversely affects Arabica coffee and the entire coffee industry. Coffee prices are however still at an all time high in 30 years due to low production and increased demand. The study will hopefully lead to development of measures that will ensure the continuity of Arabica. It points out areas where wild Arabica can grow sustainably over the next 100 years. It goes ahead to point out populations that need prompt preservation measures.
Based on computer modeling on the climate change influence on coffee species growing naturally, the study is one of its own having never been done before. Aaron Davis, from the RBG, Kew, is quoted saying, “Coffee is now entrenched in the contemporary world and it supports mankind while bearing earnings. The research did not intend to elicit pessimistic predictions on this coffee species becoming extinct, but to be the basis for taking action.” Justin Moat, also from RBG, says, “The most adverse situation, from our evaluation, is that the species could have perished by the year 2080. This is supposed to notify stakeholders on how delicate the species is. Our target is to come up with and implement these evaluations to other endangered plant species, regularly. There is a vast collection of knowledge gathered in various museums across the world, Kew for instance, and we have recently begun deploying their potential for examining some of world’s extremely delicate issues.”